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  Flora

Wild flora in the western part of this province, in the Sierra del Turquino mountain range, is notorious due to its high degree of endemism. There are notable changes as to floral composition having to do with the altitude or location in the north or south slopes. By the littoral one can find the coastal heath, which is substituted by the dry one in higher zones. As the slopes go up, the low altitude pluvial wood appears (400 m, 1312 ft); then the sub-mountain one (400-800 m, 1312-2624 ft); followed by the mountain wood (800-1600 m, 2624-5248 ft), having a notable richness of flowers and species like the Sabina (Juniperus saxicola). From the 1600 m (5248 ft) up one can enjoy the splendor of the arborescent ferns of the cloudy forest and, finally, over the 1900 m (6232 ft) the mountains reveal the peculiarity of the cool forest, having dwarfed twisted trunks inhabited by epiphytes, moss, and other hygrophilous species.
In the eastern zone of the Sierra Maestra, vegetation is relatively varied with presence of dry forests in the far northeastern end of the Sierra de la Gran Piedra, at heights from 360 to 560 m (1181 to 1837 ft); and in the eastern part of the (400-800 m, 1312-2624 ft);, south from the hill of Santa María, at heights from 400 to 600 m (1312 to 1968 ft).
Out of the natural vegetation, the most abundant is the sub-mountain evergreen perennially foliate wood (400-800 m, 1312-2624 ft), present in the Baconao river upper basin as well as in the Sigua brook upper basin. In addition, great surfaces of coniferous woods can be observed, dominated by the presence of the skyscraper pine (Pinus maestrensis), in the elevated summits of the Sierra de la Gran Piedra.
In the Santiago de Cuba plain, wild vegetation is poor owing to the absence of natural woods, the action of men derived from the closeness of a big city, and the substitution of natural spaces by urban and suburban systems.
In coastal zones at both sides of the bay, there are some endemic plant species associated to high coasts with rocky and sandy soils.
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