In the year 1976, after the application of the new political administrative division of the country, La Habana, becomes a province independent from the City of Havana, today's capital of the island.
Prior to that, they both shared the same territory. That is the reason why their history is intimately related.
By the end of the 18th century and beginning of the 19th, the rising in agricultural production determined the introduction of great amounts of African slaves. The life of those slaves was characterized by mistreatment and disregard for their human condition. The struggle of those slaves for their freedom, brought about uprisings in which the slaves, armed with sticks, stones, and working instruments, headed for the forests and caves. There, they organized themselves in refuges called "Palenques" distributed all along this region
During the wars of independence, it was vital to maintain armed groups in the western region of the country in order to weaken the Spanish economy and balance the weight of the war in the east and center of the country. The strongest conspirative were located in the zones of San Antonio de los Baños, Güira de Melena, Bejucal, Alquízar, Bauta, and Jaruco.
The western provinces counted on developed ways of communication and that favored the Spanish troops. The topography was also in favor of the Spaniards. Nevertheless, the insurrectionist forces managed to use more than fifty-three caves of this region as camps, hospitals, nurseries, arms deposits, and forges.
In a farm located in the zone of Punta Brava, Bauta, was fought on December 6, 1896 the battle in which liutenant general Antonio Maceo was killed.
During the neocolonial republic, the inhabitants of this region were linked to working-class struggles and committed in the fight against Batista. From the municipality of Artemisa, a numerous group of young patriots, led by Fidel Castro, took part in the Moncada Garrison attack in Santiago de Cuba.