In the north section, it is associated to vegetable communities of the region, although it is worth-mentioning that in coastal zones, especially in the bays of Manatí and Malagueta, one can find one of the sea mammals most representative of Cuba and the Americas Mediterranean: the manatee (trichechus manatus).
In the central region of this province the fauna is related to the presence of man, derived from cattle raising and agricultural practices. The scarce wild species are associated to rosewood vegetation, little focuses of natural vegetation and forestry plantations and are represented by mammals like the "jata" bat (Mormopterus minutus) and the butterfly bat (Natalus lepidus), one of the tiniest of the world; by amphibious like the "ventorrillas" (Eleutherodactylus thomasi and Eleutherodactylus grevi); and by arachnids like the Centruroides anchorellus.
Towards the south, wild fauna, like the flora, is hygrophilous, typical of mangrove-tree communities and marshlands. In marshlands, it is typical to find crocodile species like the Crocodylus rombipher. In the region, some species introduced by man have adapted themselves to the environmental conditions. Some of them are the white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and the wild boar (Sus scrofa).