Province located in the southeast of Cuba's eastern region. It has an extension of 6 176 sq km (2385 sq mi) and an estimated population of 508 576 inhabitants (1996). The province ranks tenth in extension and eleventh in population.
This region has a predominance of elevations: towards the north and east-northeast the mountains of Nipe-Sagua-Baracoa with the predominant height located in the Sierra Curial, the peak El Gato (1 181 m, 3874 ft); towards the southwest part of the Sierra Maestra mountain range alternates with valleys like those of Guantánamo, Guaso, and Sabanalamar.
The main lagoon is La Salada and the largest dams, those of La Yaya and El Jaibo.